Linux & Unix Help Command

bash

GNU bash, version 4.1.2(1)-release-(x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu)
Usage:	bash [GNU long option] [option] ...
	bash [GNU long option] [option] script-file ...
GNU long options:
	--debug
	--debugger
	--dump-po-strings
	--dump-strings
	--help
	--init-file
	--login
	--noediting
	--noprofile
	--norc
	--posix
	--protected
	--rcfile
	--rpm-requires
	--restricted
	--verbose
	--version
Shell options:
	-irsD or -c command or -O shopt_option		(invocation only)
	-abefhkmnptuvxBCHP or -o option
Type `bash -c "help set"' for more information about shell options.
Type `bash -c help' for more information about shell builtin commands.

 

cat

Usage: cat [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Concatenate FILE(s), or standard input, to standard output.

  -A, --show-all           equivalent to -vET
  -b, --number-nonblank    number nonempty output lines
  -e                       equivalent to -vE
  -E, --show-ends          display $ at end of each line
  -n, --number             number all output lines
  -s, --squeeze-blank      suppress repeated empty output lines
  -t                       equivalent to -vT
  -T, --show-tabs          display TAB characters as ^I
  -u                       (ignored)
  -v, --show-nonprinting   use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Examples:
  cat f - g  Output f's contents, then standard input, then g's contents.
  cat        Copy standard input to standard output.

Report cat bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'cat invocation'

chgrp

Usage: chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...
  or:  chgrp [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...
Change the group of each FILE to GROUP.
With --reference, change the group of each FILE to that of RFILE.

  -c, --changes          like verbose but report only when a change is made
      --dereference      affect the referent of each symbolic link (this is
                         the default), rather than the symbolic link itself
  -h, --no-dereference   affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced
                         file (useful only on systems that can change the
                         ownership of a symlink)
      --no-preserve-root  do not treat `/' specially (the default)
      --preserve-root    fail to operate recursively on `/'
  -f, --silent, --quiet  suppress most error messages
      --reference=RFILE  use RFILE's group rather than specifying a
                         GROUP value
  -R, --recursive        operate on files and directories recursively
  -v, --verbose          output a diagnostic for every file processed

The following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R
option is also specified.  If more than one is specified, only the final
one takes effect.

  -H                     if a command line argument is a symbolic link
                         to a directory, traverse it
  -L                     traverse every symbolic link to a directory
                         encountered
  -P                     do not traverse any symbolic links (default)

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Examples:
  chgrp staff /u      Change the group of /u to "staff".
  chgrp -hR staff /u  Change the group of /u and subfiles to "staff".

Report chgrp bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'chgrp invocation'

 

chmod

Usage: chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
  or:  chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
  or:  chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...
Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.

  -c, --changes           like verbose but report only when a change is made
      --no-preserve-root  do not treat `/' specially (the default)
      --preserve-root     fail to operate recursively on `/'
  -f, --silent, --quiet   suppress most error messages
  -v, --verbose           output a diagnostic for every file processed
      --reference=RFILE   use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values
  -R, --recursive         change files and directories recursively
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Each MODE is of the form `[ugoa]*([-+=]([rwxXst]*|[ugo]))+'.

Report chmod bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'chmod invocation'

 

chown

Usage: chown [OPTION]... [OWNER][:[GROUP]] FILE...
  or:  chown [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...
Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.
With --reference, change the owner and group of each FILE to those of RFILE.

  -c, --changes          like verbose but report only when a change is made
      --dereference      affect the referent of each symbolic link (this is
                         the default), rather than the symbolic link itself
  -h, --no-dereference   affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced
                         file (useful only on systems that can change the
                         ownership of a symlink)
      --from=CURRENT_OWNER:CURRENT_GROUP
                         change the owner and/or group of each file only if
                         its current owner and/or group match those specified
                         here.  Either may be omitted, in which case a match
                         is not required for the omitted attribute.
      --no-preserve-root  do not treat `/' specially (the default)
      --preserve-root    fail to operate recursively on `/'
  -f, --silent, --quiet  suppress most error messages
      --reference=RFILE  use RFILE's owner and group rather than
                         specifying OWNER:GROUP values
  -R, --recursive        operate on files and directories recursively
  -v, --verbose          output a diagnostic for every file processed

The following options modify how a hierarchy is traversed when the -R
option is also specified.  If more than one is specified, only the final
one takes effect.

  -H                     if a command line argument is a symbolic link
                         to a directory, traverse it
  -L                     traverse every symbolic link to a directory
                         encountered
  -P                     do not traverse any symbolic links (default)

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Owner is unchanged if missing.  Group is unchanged if missing, but changed
to login group if implied by a `:' following a symbolic OWNER.
OWNER and GROUP may be numeric as well as symbolic.

Examples:
  chown root /u        Change the owner of /u to "root".
  chown root:staff /u  Likewise, but also change its group to "staff".
  chown -hR root /u    Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root".

Report chown bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'chown invocation'

 

cp

Usage: cp [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
  or:  cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
  or:  cp [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...
Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --archive                same as -dR --preserve=all
      --backup[=CONTROL]       make a backup of each existing destination file
  -b                           like --backup but does not accept an argument
      --copy-contents          copy contents of special files when recursive
  -d                           same as --no-dereference --preserve=links
  -f, --force                  if an existing destination file cannot be
                                 opened, remove it and try again (redundant if
                                 the -n option is used)
  -i, --interactive            prompt before overwrite (overrides a previous -n
                                  option)
  -H                           follow command-line symbolic links in SOURCE
  -l, --link                   link files instead of copying
  -L, --dereference            always follow symbolic links in SOURCE
  -n, --no-clobber             do not overwrite an existing file (overrides
                                 a previous -i option)
  -P, --no-dereference         never follow symbolic links in SOURCE
  -p                           same as --preserve=mode,ownership,timestamps
      --preserve[=ATTR_LIST]   preserve the specified attributes (default:
                                 mode,ownership,timestamps), if possible
                                 additional attributes: context, links, xattr,
                                 all
  -c                           same as --preserve=context
      --no-preserve=ATTR_LIST  don't preserve the specified attributes
      --parents                use full source file name under DIRECTORY
  -R, -r, --recursive          copy directories recursively
      --reflink[=WHEN]         control clone/CoW copies. See below.
      --remove-destination     remove each existing destination file before
                                 attempting to open it (contrast with --force)
      --sparse=WHEN            control creation of sparse files. See below.
      --strip-trailing-slashes  remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE
                                 argument
  -s, --symbolic-link          make symbolic links instead of copying
  -S, --suffix=SUFFIX          override the usual backup suffix
  -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY  copy all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY
  -T, --no-target-directory    treat DEST as a normal file
  -u, --update                 copy only when the SOURCE file is newer
                                 than the destination file or when the
                                 destination file is missing
  -v, --verbose                explain what is being done
  -x, --one-file-system        stay on this file system
  -Z, --context=CONTEXT        set security context of copy to CONTEXT
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

By default, sparse SOURCE files are detected by a crude heuristic and the
corresponding DEST file is made sparse as well.  That is the behavior
selected by --sparse=auto.  Specify --sparse=always to create a sparse DEST
file whenever the SOURCE file contains a long enough sequence of zero bytes.
Use --sparse=never to inhibit creation of sparse files.

When --reflink[=always] is specified, perform a lightweight copy, where the
data blocks are copied only when modified.  If this is not possible the copy
fails, or if --reflink=auto is specified, fall back to a standard copy.

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through
the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.  Here are the values:

  none, off       never make backups (even if --backup is given)
  numbered, t     make numbered backups
  existing, nil   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  simple, never   always make simple backups

As a special case, cp makes a backup of SOURCE when the force and backup
options are given and SOURCE and DEST are the same name for an existing,
regular file.

Report cp bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'cp invocation'

 

cpio

Usage: cpio [OPTION...] [destination-directory]
GNU `cpio' copies files to and from archives

Examples:
  # Copy files named in name-list to the archive
  cpio -o < name-list [> archive]
  # Extract files from the archive
  cpio -i [< archive]
  # Copy files named in name-list to destination-directory
  cpio -p destination-directory < name-list

 Main operation mode:
  -i, --extract              Extract files from an archive (run in copy-in
                             mode)
  -o, --create               Create the archive (run in copy-out mode)
  -p, --pass-through         Run in copy-pass mode
  -t, --list                 Print a table of contents of the input

 Operation modifiers valid in any mode:

      --block-size=BLOCK-SIZE   Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512
                             bytes
  -B                         Set the I/O block size to 5120 bytes
  -c                         Identical to "-H newc", use the new (SVR4)
                             portable format.If you wish the old portable
                             (ASCII) archive format, use "-H odc" instead.
  -C, --io-size=NUMBER       Set the I/O block size to the given NUMBER of
                             bytes
      --force-local          Archive file is local, even if its name contains
                             colons
  -f, --nonmatching          Only copy files that do not match any of the given
                             patterns
  -F, --file=[[USER@]HOST:]FILE-NAME
                             Use this FILE-NAME instead of standard input or
                             output. Optional USER and HOST specify the user
                             and host names in case of a remote archive
  -H, --format=FORMAT        Use given archive FORMAT
  -M, --message=STRING       Print STRING when the end of a volume of the
                             backup media is reached
  -n, --numeric-uid-gid      In the verbose table of contents listing, show
                             numeric UID and GID
      --quiet                Do not print the number of blocks copied
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  Use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
  -v, --verbose              Verbosely list the files processed
  -V, --dot                  Print a "." for each file processed
  -W, --warning=FLAG         Control warning display. Currently FLAG is one of
                             'none', 'truncate', 'all'. Multiple options
                             accumulate.

 Operation modifiers valid only in copy-in mode:

  -b, --swap                 Swap both halfwords of words and bytes of
                             halfwords in the data. Equivalent to -sS
  -r, --rename               Interactively rename files
  -s, --swap-bytes           Swap the bytes of each halfword in the files
  -S, --swap-halfwords       Swap the halfwords of each word (4 bytes) in the
                             files
      --to-stdout            Extract files to standard output

  -E, --pattern-file=FILE    Read additional patterns specifying filenames to
                             extract or list from FILE
      --only-verify-crc      When reading a CRC format archive, only verify the
                             CRC's of each file in the archive, don't actually
                             extract the files

 Operation modifiers valid only in copy-out mode:

  -A, --append               Append to an existing archive.
  -O [[USER@]HOST:]FILE-NAME Archive filename to use instead of standard
                             output. Optional USER and HOST specify the user
                             and host names in case of a remote archive

 Operation modifiers valid only in copy-pass mode:

  -l, --link                 Link files instead of copying them, when
                             possible

 Operation modifiers valid in copy-in and copy-out modes:

      --absolute-filenames   Do not strip file system prefix components from
                             the file names
      --no-absolute-filenames   Create all files relative to the current
                             directory

 Operation modifiers valid in copy-out and copy-pass modes:

  -0, --null                 A list of filenames is terminated by a null
                             character instead of a newline
  -a, --reset-access-time    Reset the access times of files after reading
                             them
  -I [[USER@]HOST:]FILE-NAME Archive filename to use instead of standard input.
                             Optional USER and HOST specify the user and host
                             names in case of a remote archive
  -L, --dereference          Dereference  symbolic  links  (copy  the files
                             that they point to instead of copying the links).
  -R, --owner=[USER][:.][GROUP]   Set the ownership of all files created to the
                             specified USER and/or GROUP

 Operation modifiers valid in copy-in and copy-pass modes:

  -d, --make-directories     Create leading directories where needed
  -m, --preserve-modification-time
                             Retain previous file modification times when
                             creating files
      --no-preserve-owner    Do not change the ownership of the files
      --sparse               Write files with large blocks of zeros as sparse
                             files
  -u, --unconditional        Replace all files unconditionally

 Informative options:

  -?, --help                 Give this help list
      --license              Print license and exit
      --usage                Give a short usage message
      --version              Print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

Report bugs to <bug-cpio@gnu.org>.

 

tcsh

tcsh 6.17.00 (Astron) 2009-07-10 (x86_64-unknown-linux) options wide,nls,dl,al,kan,sm,rh,color,filec

-b file		batch mode, read and execute commands from `file' 
-c command	run `command' from next argument 
-d		load directory stack from `~/.cshdirs' 
-Dname[=value]	define environment variable `name' to `value' (DomainOS only) 
-e		exit on any error 
-f		start faster by ignoring the start-up file 
-F		use fork() instead of vfork() when spawning (ConvexOS only) 
-i		interactive, even when input is not from a terminal 
-l		act as a login shell, must be the only option specified 
-m		load the start-up file, whether or not owned by effective user 
-n file		no execute mode, just check syntax of the following `file' 
-q		accept SIGQUIT for running under a debugger 
-s		read commands from standard input 
-t		read one line from standard input 
-v		echo commands after history substitution 
-V		like -v but including commands read from the start-up file 
-x		echo commands immediately before execution 
-X		like -x but including commands read from the start-up file 
--help		print this message and exit 
--version	print the version shell variable and exit 

See the tcsh(1) manual page for detailed information.

 

cut

Usage: cut OPTION... [FILE]...
Print selected parts of lines from each FILE to standard output.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -b, --bytes=LIST        select only these bytes
  -c, --characters=LIST   select only these characters
  -d, --delimiter=DELIM   use DELIM instead of TAB for field delimiter
  -f, --fields=LIST       select only these fields;  also print any line
                            that contains no delimiter character, unless
                            the -s option is specified
  -n                      with -b: don't split multibyte characters
      --complement        complement the set of selected bytes, characters
                            or fields
  -s, --only-delimited    do not print lines not containing delimiters
      --output-delimiter=STRING  use STRING as the output delimiter
                            the default is to use the input delimiter
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Use one, and only one of -b, -c or -f.  Each LIST is made up of one
range, or many ranges separated by commas.  Selected input is written
in the same order that it is read, and is written exactly once.
Each range is one of:

  N     N'th byte, character or field, counted from 1
  N-    from N'th byte, character or field, to end of line
  N-M   from N'th to M'th (included) byte, character or field
  -M    from first to M'th (included) byte, character or field

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Report cut bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'cut invocation'

 

 

date

Usage: date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]
  or:  date [-u|--utc|--universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]
Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date.

  -d, --date=STRING         display time described by STRING, not `now'
  -f, --file=DATEFILE       like --date once for each line of DATEFILE
  -r, --reference=FILE      display the last modification time of FILE
  -R, --rfc-2822            output date and time in RFC 2822 format.
                            Example: Mon, 07 Aug 2006 12:34:56 -0600
      --rfc-3339=TIMESPEC   output date and time in RFC 3339 format.
                            TIMESPEC=`date', `seconds', or `ns' for
                            date and time to the indicated precision.
                            Date and time components are separated by
                            a single space: 2006-08-07 12:34:56-06:00
  -s, --set=STRING          set time described by STRING
  -u, --utc, --universal    print or set Coordinated Universal Time
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

FORMAT controls the output.  Interpreted sequences are:

  %%   a literal %
  %a   locale's abbreviated weekday name (e.g., Sun)
  %A   locale's full weekday name (e.g., Sunday)
  %b   locale's abbreviated month name (e.g., Jan)
  %B   locale's full month name (e.g., January)
  %c   locale's date and time (e.g., Thu Mar  3 23:05:25 2005)
  %C   century; like %Y, except omit last two digits (e.g., 20)
  %d   day of month (e.g, 01)
  %D   date; same as %m/%d/%y
  %e   day of month, space padded; same as %_d
  %F   full date; same as %Y-%m-%d
  %g   last two digits of year of ISO week number (see %G)
  %G   year of ISO week number (see %V); normally useful only with %V
  %h   same as %b
  %H   hour (00..23)
  %I   hour (01..12)
  %j   day of year (001..366)
  %k   hour ( 0..23)
  %l   hour ( 1..12)
  %m   month (01..12)
  %M   minute (00..59)
  %n   a newline
  %N   nanoseconds (000000000..999999999)
  %p   locale's equivalent of either AM or PM; blank if not known
  %P   like %p, but lower case
  %r   locale's 12-hour clock time (e.g., 11:11:04 PM)
  %R   24-hour hour and minute; same as %H:%M
  %s   seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC
  %S   second (00..60)
  %t   a tab
  %T   time; same as %H:%M:%S
  %u   day of week (1..7); 1 is Monday
  %U   week number of year, with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)
  %V   ISO week number, with Monday as first day of week (01..53)
  %w   day of week (0..6); 0 is Sunday
  %W   week number of year, with Monday as first day of week (00..53)
  %x   locale's date representation (e.g., 12/31/99)
  %X   locale's time representation (e.g., 23:13:48)
  %y   last two digits of year (00..99)
  %Y   year
  %z   +hhmm numeric timezone (e.g., -0400)
  %:z  +hh:mm numeric timezone (e.g., -04:00)
  %::z  +hh:mm:ss numeric time zone (e.g., -04:00:00)
  %:::z  numeric time zone with : to necessary precision (e.g., -04, +05:30)
  %Z   alphabetic time zone abbreviation (e.g., EDT)

By default, date pads numeric fields with zeroes.
The following optional flags may follow `%':

  -  (hyphen) do not pad the field
  _  (underscore) pad with spaces
  0  (zero) pad with zeros
  ^  use upper case if possible
  #  use opposite case if possible

After any flags comes an optional field width, as a decimal number;
then an optional modifier, which is either
E to use the locale's alternate representations if available, or
O to use the locale's alternate numeric symbols if available.

Report date bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'date invocation'

 

dd

Usage: dd [OPERAND]...
  or:  dd OPTION
Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

  bs=BYTES        read and write BYTES bytes at a time (also see ibs=,obs=)
  cbs=BYTES       convert BYTES bytes at a time
  conv=CONVS      convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list
  count=BLOCKS    copy only BLOCKS input blocks
  ibs=BYTES       read BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)
  if=FILE         read from FILE instead of stdin
  iflag=FLAGS     read as per the comma separated symbol list
  obs=BYTES       write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)
  of=FILE         write to FILE instead of stdout
  oflag=FLAGS     write as per the comma separated symbol list
  seek=BLOCKS     skip BLOCKS obs-sized blocks at start of output
  skip=BLOCKS     skip BLOCKS ibs-sized blocks at start of input
  status=WHICH    WHICH info to suppress outputting to stderr;
                  'noxfer' suppresses transfer stats, 'none' suppresses all

BLOCKS and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes:
c =1, w =2, b =512, kB =1000, K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M =1024*1024, xM =M
GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

Each CONV symbol may be:

  ascii     from EBCDIC to ASCII
  ebcdic    from ASCII to EBCDIC
  ibm       from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC
  block     pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size
  unblock   replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline
  lcase     change upper case to lower case
  nocreat   do not create the output file
  excl      fail if the output file already exists
  notrunc   do not truncate the output file
  ucase     change lower case to upper case
  sparse    try to seek rather than write the output for NUL input blocks
  swab      swap every pair of input bytes
  noerror   continue after read errors
  sync      pad every input block with NULs to ibs-size; when used
            with block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs
  fdatasync  physically write output file data before finishing
  fsync     likewise, but also write metadata

Each FLAG symbol may be:

  append    append mode (makes sense only for output; conv=notrunc suggested)
  direct    use direct I/O for data
  directory  fail unless a directory
  dsync     use synchronized I/O for data
  sync      likewise, but also for metadata
  fullblock  accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only)
  nonblock  use non-blocking I/O
  noatime   do not update access time
  noctty    do not assign controlling terminal from file
  nofollow  do not follow symlinks

Sending a USR1 signal to a running `dd' process makes it
print I/O statistics to standard error and then resume copying.

  $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
  $ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid
  18335302+0 records in
  18335302+0 records out
  9387674624 bytes (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s

Options are:

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report dd bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'dd invocation'

 

df

Usage: df [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Show information about the file system on which each FILE resides,
or all file systems by default.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --all             include dummy file systems
  -B, --block-size=SIZE  use SIZE-byte blocks
      --direct          show statistics for a file instead of mount point
      --total           produce a grand total
  -h, --human-readable  print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
  -H, --si              likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
  -i, --inodes          list inode information instead of block usage
  -k                    like --block-size=1K
  -l, --local           limit listing to local file systems
      --no-sync         do not invoke sync before getting usage info (default)
  -P, --portability     use the POSIX output format
      --sync            invoke sync before getting usage info
  -t, --type=TYPE       limit listing to file systems of type TYPE
  -T, --print-type      print file system type
  -x, --exclude-type=TYPE   limit listing to file systems not of type TYPE
  -v                    (ignored)
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Display values are in units of the first available SIZE from --block-size,
and the DF_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE and BLOCKSIZE environment variables.
Otherwise, units default to 1024 bytes (or 512 if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set).

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Report df bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'df invocation'

 

ed

GNU Ed - The GNU line editor.

Usage: ed [options] [file]
Options:
  -h, --help                 display this help and exit
  -V, --version              output version information and exit
  -G, --traditional          run in compatibility mode
  -l, --loose-exit-status    exit with 0 status even if a command fails
  -p, --prompt=STRING        use STRING as an interactive prompt
  -s, --quiet, --silent      suppress diagnostics
  -v, --verbose              be verbose
Start edit by reading in `file' if given. Read output of shell command
if `file' begins with a `!'.

Report bugs to .
Ed home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/ed/ed.html

 

egrep

Usage: egrep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.
PATTERN is an extended regular expression (ERE).
Example: egrep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

Regexp selection and interpretation:
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      use PATTERN for matching
  -f, --file=FILE           obtain PATTERN from FILE
  -i, --ignore-case         ignore case distinctions
  -w, --word-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole words
  -x, --line-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole lines
  -z, --null-data           a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

Miscellaneous:
  -s, --no-messages         suppress error messages
  -v, --invert-match        select non-matching lines
  -V, --version             print version information and exit
      --help                display this help and exit
      --mmap                ignored for backwards compatibility

Output control:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       stop after NUM matches
  -b, --byte-offset         print the byte offset with output lines
  -n, --line-number         print line number with output lines
      --line-buffered       flush output on every line
  -H, --with-filename       print the filename for each match
  -h, --no-filename         suppress the prefixing filename on output
      --label=LABEL         print LABEL as filename for standard input
  -o, --only-matching       show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
  -q, --quiet, --silent     suppress all normal output
      --binary-files=TYPE   assume that binary files are TYPE;
                            TYPE is `binary', `text', or `without-match'
  -a, --text                equivalent to --binary-files=text
  -I                        equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  how to handle directories;
                            ACTION is `read', `recurse', or `skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets;
                            ACTION is `read' or `skip'
  -R, -r, --recursive       equivalent to --directories=recurse
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude-from=FILE   skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
  -L, --files-without-match  print only names of FILEs containing no match
  -l, --files-with-matches  print only names of FILEs containing matches
  -c, --count               print only a count of matching lines per FILE
  -T, --initial-tab         make tabs line up (if needed)
  -Z, --null                print 0 byte after FILE name

Context control:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  print NUM lines of leading context
  -A, --after-context=NUM   print NUM lines of trailing context
  -C, --context=NUM         print NUM lines of output context
  -NUM                      same as --context=NUM
      --color[=WHEN],
      --colour[=WHEN]       use markers to highlight the matching strings;
                            WHEN is `always', `never', or `auto'
  -U, --binary              do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS)
  -u, --unix-byte-offsets   report offsets as if CRs were not there (MSDOS)

Invocation as `egrep' is deprecated; use `grep -E' instead.
With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.  If less than two FILEs
are given, assume -h.  Exit status is 0 if any line was selected, 1 otherwise;
if any error occurs and -q was not given, the exit status is 2.

Report bugs to: bug-grep@gnu.org
GNU Grep home page: 
General help using GNU software:

 

env

Usage: env [OPTION]... [-] [NAME=VALUE]... [COMMAND [ARG]...]
Set each NAME to VALUE in the environment and run COMMAND.

  -i, --ignore-environment  start with an empty environment
  -0, --null           end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline
  -u, --unset=NAME     remove variable from the environment
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

A mere - implies -i.  If no COMMAND, print the resulting environment.

Report env bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'env invocation'

 

vim

VIM - Vi IMproved 7.2 (2008 Aug 9, compiled Apr  5 2012 10:17:30)

usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined
   or: vim [arguments] -q [errorfile]  edit file with first error

Arguments:
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -d			Diff mode (like "vimdiff")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -l			Lisp mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -D			Debugging mode
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -A			start in Arabic mode
   -H			Start in Hebrew mode
   -F			Start in Farsi mode
   -T 	Set terminal type to 
   -u 		Use  instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +		Start at line 
   --cmd 	Execute  before loading any vimrc file
   -c 		Execute  after loading the first file
   -S 		Source file  after loading the first file
   -s 	Read Normal mode commands from file 
   -w 	Append all typed commands to file 
   -W 	Write all typed commands to file 
   -x			Edit encrypted files
   --startuptime 	Write startup timing messages to 
   -i 		Use  instead of .viminfo
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

 

 

fgrep

Usage: fgrep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.
PATTERN is a set of newline-separated fixed strings.
Example: fgrep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

Regexp selection and interpretation:
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      use PATTERN for matching
  -f, --file=FILE           obtain PATTERN from FILE
  -i, --ignore-case         ignore case distinctions
  -w, --word-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole words
  -x, --line-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole lines
  -z, --null-data           a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

Miscellaneous:
  -s, --no-messages         suppress error messages
  -v, --invert-match        select non-matching lines
  -V, --version             print version information and exit
      --help                display this help and exit
      --mmap                ignored for backwards compatibility

Output control:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       stop after NUM matches
  -b, --byte-offset         print the byte offset with output lines
  -n, --line-number         print line number with output lines
      --line-buffered       flush output on every line
  -H, --with-filename       print the filename for each match
  -h, --no-filename         suppress the prefixing filename on output
      --label=LABEL         print LABEL as filename for standard input
  -o, --only-matching       show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
  -q, --quiet, --silent     suppress all normal output
      --binary-files=TYPE   assume that binary files are TYPE;
                            TYPE is `binary', `text', or `without-match'
  -a, --text                equivalent to --binary-files=text
  -I                        equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  how to handle directories;
                            ACTION is `read', `recurse', or `skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets;
                            ACTION is `read' or `skip'
  -R, -r, --recursive       equivalent to --directories=recurse
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude-from=FILE   skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
  -L, --files-without-match  print only names of FILEs containing no match
  -l, --files-with-matches  print only names of FILEs containing matches
  -c, --count               print only a count of matching lines per FILE
  -T, --initial-tab         make tabs line up (if needed)
  -Z, --null                print 0 byte after FILE name

Context control:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  print NUM lines of leading context
  -A, --after-context=NUM   print NUM lines of trailing context
  -C, --context=NUM         print NUM lines of output context
  -NUM                      same as --context=NUM
      --color[=WHEN],
      --colour[=WHEN]       use markers to highlight the matching strings;
                            WHEN is `always', `never', or `auto'
  -U, --binary              do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS)
  -u, --unix-byte-offsets   report offsets as if CRs were not there (MSDOS)

Invocation as `fgrep' is deprecated; use `grep -F' instead.
With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.  If less than two FILEs
are given, assume -h.  Exit status is 0 if any line was selected, 1 otherwise;
if any error occurs and -q was not given, the exit status is 2.

Report bugs to: bug-grep@gnu.org
GNU Grep home page: 
General help using GNU software:

 

find

Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

default path is the current directory; default expression is -print
expression may consist of: operators, options, tests, and actions:

operators (decreasing precedence; -and is implicit where no others are given):
      ( EXPR )   ! EXPR   -not EXPR   EXPR1 -a EXPR2   EXPR1 -and EXPR2
      EXPR1 -o EXPR2   EXPR1 -or EXPR2   EXPR1 , EXPR2

positional options (always true): -daystart -follow -regextype

normal options (always true, specified before other expressions):
      -depth --help -maxdepth LEVELS -mindepth LEVELS -mount -noleaf
      --version -xdev -ignore_readdir_race -noignore_readdir_race

tests (N can be +N or -N or N): -amin N -anewer FILE -atime N -cmin N
      -cnewer FILE -ctime N -empty -false -fstype TYPE -gid N -group NAME
      -ilname PATTERN -iname PATTERN -inum N -iwholename PATTERN -iregex PATTERN
      -links N -lname PATTERN -mmin N -mtime N -name PATTERN -newer FILE
      -nouser -nogroup -path PATTERN -perm [+-]MODE -regex PATTERN
      -readable -writable -executable
      -wholename PATTERN -size N[bcwkMG] -true -type [bcdpflsD] -uid N
      -used N -user NAME -xtype [bcdpfls]
      -context CONTEXT

actions: -delete -print0 -printf FORMAT -fprintf FILE FORMAT -print 
      -fprint0 FILE -fprint FILE -ls -fls FILE -prune -quit
      -exec COMMAND ; -exec COMMAND {} + -ok COMMAND ;
      -execdir COMMAND ; -execdir COMMAND {} + -okdir COMMAND ;

Report (and track progress on fixing) bugs via the findutils bug-reporting
page at http://savannah.gnu.org/ or, if you have no web access, by sending
email to .

 

findmnt

Usage:
 findmnt [options]
 findmnt [options]  | 
 findmnt [options]  
 findmnt [options] [--source ] [--target ]

Options:
 -s, --fstab            search in static table of filesystems
 -m, --mtab             search in table of mounted filesystems
 -k, --kernel           search in kernel table of mounted 
                        filesystems (default)

 -c, --canonicalize     canonicalize printed paths
 -d, --direction  search direction - 'forward' or 'backward'
 -e, --evaluate         print all TAGs (LABEL/UUID) evaluated
 -f, --first-only       print the first found filesystem only
 -h, --help             print this help
 -i, --invert           invert sense of matching
 -l, --list             use list format output
 -n, --noheadings       don't print headings
 -u, --notruncate       don't truncate text in columns
 -O, --options    limit the set of filesystems by mount options
 -o, --output     output columns
 -r, --raw              use raw format output
 -a, --ascii            use ascii chars for tree formatting
 -t, --types      limit the set of filesystem by FS types
 -v, --nofsroot         don't print [/dir] for bind or btrfs mounts
 -R, --submounts        print all submount for the matching filesystems
 -S, --source   device, LABEL= or UUID=device
 -T, --target   mountpoint

Available columns:
  SOURCE        TARGET        FSTYPE      
  OPTIONS       VFS-OPTIONS   FS-OPTIONS  
  LABEL         UUID          MAJ:MIN     

For more information see findmnt(1).

 

 

gawk

Usage: gawk [POSIX or GNU style options] -f progfile [--] file ...
Usage: gawk [POSIX or GNU style options] [--] 'program' file ...
POSIX options:		GNU long options:
	-f progfile		--file=progfile
	-F fs			--field-separator=fs
	-v var=val		--assign=var=val
	-m[fr] val
	-O			--optimize
	-W compat		--compat
	-W copyleft		--copyleft
	-W copyright		--copyright
	-W dump-variables[=file]	--dump-variables[=file]
	-W exec=file		--exec=file
	-W gen-po		--gen-po
	-W help			--help
	-W lint[=fatal]		--lint[=fatal]
	-W lint-old		--lint-old
	-W non-decimal-data	--non-decimal-data
	-W profile[=file]	--profile[=file]
	-W posix		--posix
	-W re-interval		--re-interval
	-W source=program-text	--source=program-text
	-W traditional		--traditional
	-W usage		--usage
	-W use-lc-numeric	--use-lc-numeric
	-W version		--version

To report bugs, see node `Bugs' in `gawk.info', which is
section `Reporting Problems and Bugs' in the printed version.

gawk is a pattern scanning and processing language.
By default it reads standard input and writes standard output.

Examples:
	gawk '{ sum += $1 }; END { print sum }' file
	gawk -F: '{ print $1 }' /etc/passwd

 

gettext

Usage: gettext [OPTION] [[TEXTDOMAIN] MSGID]
or:    gettext [OPTION] -s [MSGID]...

Display native language translation of a textual message.

  -d, --domain=TEXTDOMAIN   retrieve translated messages from TEXTDOMAIN
  -e                        enable expansion of some escape sequences
  -E                        (ignored for compatibility)
  -h, --help                display this help and exit
  -n                        suppress trailing newline
  -V, --version             display version information and exit
  [TEXTDOMAIN] MSGID        retrieve translated message corresponding
                            to MSGID from TEXTDOMAIN

If the TEXTDOMAIN parameter is not given, the domain is determined from the
environment variable TEXTDOMAIN.  If the message catalog is not found in the
regular directory, another location can be specified with the environment
variable TEXTDOMAINDIR.
When used with the -s option the program behaves like the `echo' command.
But it does not simply copy its arguments to stdout.  Instead those messages
found in the selected catalog are translated.
Standard search directory: /usr/share/locale

Report bugs to .

 

grep

Usage: grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...
Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.
PATTERN is, by default, a basic regular expression (BRE).
Example: grep -i 'hello world' menu.h main.c

Regexp selection and interpretation:
  -E, --extended-regexp     PATTERN is an extended regular expression (ERE)
  -F, --fixed-strings       PATTERN is a set of newline-separated fixed strings
  -G, --basic-regexp        PATTERN is a basic regular expression (BRE)
  -P, --perl-regexp         PATTERN is a Perl regular expression
  -e, --regexp=PATTERN      use PATTERN for matching
  -f, --file=FILE           obtain PATTERN from FILE
  -i, --ignore-case         ignore case distinctions
  -w, --word-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole words
  -x, --line-regexp         force PATTERN to match only whole lines
  -z, --null-data           a data line ends in 0 byte, not newline

Miscellaneous:
  -s, --no-messages         suppress error messages
  -v, --invert-match        select non-matching lines
  -V, --version             print version information and exit
      --help                display this help and exit
      --mmap                ignored for backwards compatibility

Output control:
  -m, --max-count=NUM       stop after NUM matches
  -b, --byte-offset         print the byte offset with output lines
  -n, --line-number         print line number with output lines
      --line-buffered       flush output on every line
  -H, --with-filename       print the filename for each match
  -h, --no-filename         suppress the prefixing filename on output
      --label=LABEL         print LABEL as filename for standard input
  -o, --only-matching       show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
  -q, --quiet, --silent     suppress all normal output
      --binary-files=TYPE   assume that binary files are TYPE;
                            TYPE is `binary', `text', or `without-match'
  -a, --text                equivalent to --binary-files=text
  -I                        equivalent to --binary-files=without-match
  -d, --directories=ACTION  how to handle directories;
                            ACTION is `read', `recurse', or `skip'
  -D, --devices=ACTION      how to handle devices, FIFOs and sockets;
                            ACTION is `read' or `skip'
  -R, -r, --recursive       equivalent to --directories=recurse
      --include=FILE_PATTERN  search only files that match FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude=FILE_PATTERN  skip files and directories matching FILE_PATTERN
      --exclude-from=FILE   skip files matching any file pattern from FILE
      --exclude-dir=PATTERN  directories that match PATTERN will be skipped.
  -L, --files-without-match  print only names of FILEs containing no match
  -l, --files-with-matches  print only names of FILEs containing matches
  -c, --count               print only a count of matching lines per FILE
  -T, --initial-tab         make tabs line up (if needed)
  -Z, --null                print 0 byte after FILE name

Context control:
  -B, --before-context=NUM  print NUM lines of leading context
  -A, --after-context=NUM   print NUM lines of trailing context
  -C, --context=NUM         print NUM lines of output context
  -NUM                      same as --context=NUM
      --color[=WHEN],
      --colour[=WHEN]       use markers to highlight the matching strings;
                            WHEN is `always', `never', or `auto'
  -U, --binary              do not strip CR characters at EOL (MSDOS)
  -u, --unix-byte-offsets   report offsets as if CRs were not there (MSDOS)

`egrep' means `grep -E'.  `fgrep' means `grep -F'.
Direct invocation as either `egrep' or `fgrep' is deprecated.
With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.  If less than two FILEs
are given, assume -h.  Exit status is 0 if any line was selected, 1 otherwise;
if any error occurs and -q was not given, the exit status is 2.

Report bugs to: bug-grep@gnu.org
GNU Grep home page: 
General help using GNU software:

 

gtar

Usage: gtar [OPTION...] [FILE]...
GNU `tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can
restore individual files from the archive.

Examples:
  tar -cf archive.tar foo bar  # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.
  tar -tvf archive.tar         # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.
  tar -xf archive.tar          # Extract all files from archive.tar.

 Main operation mode:

  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive
  -c, --create               create a new archive
  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system
      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive
  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive
      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit
  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive
  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 Operation modifiers:

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental
                             archives (default)
  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup
  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup
      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive
  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable
      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating
                             incremental archives
      --no-seek              archive is not seekable
      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file
                             in the archive; this option is valid only in
                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,
                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of
                             files is given either on the command line or via
                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1
      --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]
                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies
                             --sparse)
  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 Overwrite control:

  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             treat them as errors
      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than
                             their archive copies
      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories
      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting
      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when
                             extracting (default)
      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive
      --skip-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             silently skip over them
  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it
  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 Select output stream:

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children
      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as
                             error
  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output
      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 Handling of file attributes:

      --acls                 Save the ACLs to the archive
      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either
                             by restoring the times after reading
                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the
                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')
      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and
                             permissions of extracted directories until the end
                             of extraction
      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files
      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time
      --no-acls              Don't extract the ACLs from the archive
      --no-delay-directory-restore
                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore
                             option
      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary
                             users)
      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions
                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)
      --no-selinux           Don't extract the SELinux context from the archive

      --no-xattrs            Don't extract the user/root xattrs from the
                             archive
      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names
      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files
  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
                             extract information about file permissions
                             (default for superuser)
      --preserve             same as both -p and -s
      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as
                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)
  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
                             sort names to extract to match archive
      --selinux              Save the SELinux context to the archive
      --xattrs               Save the user/root xattrs to the archive

 Device selection and switching:

  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE
      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon
  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive
      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 Device blocking:

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)
      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 Archive format selection:

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 FORMAT is one of the following:

    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format
    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar < = 1.12
    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
    posix                    same as pax
    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
    v7                       old V7 tar format

      --old-archive, --portability
                             same as --format=v7
      --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...
                             control pax keywords
      --posix                same as --format=posix
  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at
                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern
                             for volume name

 Compression options:

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression
                             program
  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)
  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2
  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz
      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip
      --lzma                 filter the archive through lzma
      --lzop
      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the
                             compression program
  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip
  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 Local file selection:

      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name
                             starts with a dash)
      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR
      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN
      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files
      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself
      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,
                             except for FILE itself
      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE
      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories
                             containing FILE
      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories
  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they
                             point to
      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they
                             refer to
  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive
      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only
      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option
      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories
      --no-unquote           do not unquote filenames read with -T
      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C
  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive
  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading `/'s from file names
      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)
      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'
                             unless overridden by environment variable
                             SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)
  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE
      --unquote              unquote filenames read with -T (default)
  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 File name transformations:

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file
                             names on extraction
      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file
                             names

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

      --anchored             patterns match file name start
      --ignore-case          ignore case
      --no-anchored          patterns match after any `/' (default for
                             exclusion)
      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)
      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching
      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match `/'
      --wildcards            use wildcards (default)
      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

 Informative output:

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record
                             (default 10)
      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint
      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE
  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped
      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING
      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING
      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE
                             values
  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each
                             message
      --show-defaults        show tar defaults
      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory
                             that does not match search criteria
      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
                             show file or archive names after transformation
      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;
                             with an argument - print total bytes when this
                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,
                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names
                             without SIG prefix are also accepted
      --utc                  print file modification dates in UTC
  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed
      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control
  -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                             ask for confirmation for every action

 Compatibility options:

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when
                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 Other options:

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options
      --usage                give a short usage message
      --version              print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control may be set with --backup or VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

  none, off       never make backups
  t, numbered     make numbered backups
  nil, existing   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  never, simple   always make simple backups

Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:

  literal
  shell
  shell-always
  c
  c-maybe
  escape
  locale
  clocale

*This* tar defaults to:
--format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape --rmt-command=/sbin/rmt
--rsh-command=/usr/bin/rsh

Report bugs to <bug-tar@gnu.org>.

 

gzip

Usage: gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Compress or uncompress FILEs (by default, compress FILES in-place).

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

  -c, --stdout      write on standard output, keep original files unchanged
  -d, --decompress  decompress
  -f, --force       force overwrite of output file and compress links
  -h, --help        give this help
  -l, --list        list compressed file contents
  -L, --license     display software license
  -n, --no-name     do not save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -N, --name        save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -q, --quiet       suppress all warnings
  -r, --recursive   operate recursively on directories
  -S, --suffix=SUF  use suffix SUF on compressed files
  -t, --test        test compressed file integrity
  -v, --verbose     verbose mode
  -V, --version     display version number
  -1, --fast        compress faster
  -9, --best        compress better
    --rsyncable   Make rsync-friendly archive

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Report bugs to .

 

Usage: gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Compress or uncompress FILEs (by default, compress FILES in-place).

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

  -c, --stdout      write on standard output, keep original files unchanged
  -d, --decompress  decompress
  -f, --force       force overwrite of output file and compress links
  -h, --help        give this help
  -l, --list        list compressed file contents
  -L, --license     display software license
  -n, --no-name     do not save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -N, --name        save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -q, --quiet       suppress all warnings
  -r, --recursive   operate recursively on directories
  -S, --suffix=SUF  use suffix SUF on compressed files
  -t, --test        test compressed file integrity
  -v, --verbose     verbose mode
  -V, --version     display version number
  -1, --fast        compress faster
  -9, --best        compress better
    --rsyncable   Make rsync-friendly archive

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Report bugs to .

 

 

ipcalc

<

Usage: ipcalc [OPTION...]
  -c, --check         Validate IP address for specified address family
  -4, --ipv4          IPv4 address family (default)
  -6, --ipv6          IPv6 address family
  -b, --broadcast     Display calculated broadcast address
  -h, --hostname      Show hostname determined via DNS
  -m, --netmask       Display default netmask for IP (class A, B, or C)
  -n, --network       Display network address
  -p, --prefix        Display network prefix
  -s, --silent        Don't ever display error messages

Help options:
  -?, --help          Show this help message
  --usage             Display brief usage message

 

link

Usage: link FILE1 FILE2
  or:  link OPTION
Call the link function to create a link named FILE2 to an existing FILE1.

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report link bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'link invocation'

 

ln

Usage: ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME   (1st form)
  or:  ln [OPTION]... TARGET                  (2nd form)
  or:  ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY     (3rd form)
  or:  ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET...  (4th form)
In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME.
In the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory.
In the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY.
Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic.
When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist.  Symbolic links
can hold arbitrary text; if later resolved, a relative link is
interpreted in relation to its parent directory.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
      --backup[=CONTROL]      make a backup of each existing destination file
  -b                          like --backup but does not accept an argument
  -d, -F, --directory         allow the superuser to attempt to hard link
                                directories (note: will probably fail due to
                                system restrictions, even for the superuser)
  -f, --force                 remove existing destination files
  -i, --interactive           prompt whether to remove destinations
  -L, --logical               make hard links to symbolic link references
  -n, --no-dereference        treat destination that is a symlink to a
                                directory as if it were a normal file
  -P, --physical              make hard links directly to symbolic links
  -s, --symbolic              make symbolic links instead of hard links
  -S, --suffix=SUFFIX         override the usual backup suffix
  -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY  specify the DIRECTORY in which to create
                                the links
  -T, --no-target-directory   treat LINK_NAME as a normal file
  -v, --verbose               print name of each linked file
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through
the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.  Here are the values:

Using -s ignores -L and -P.  Otherwise, the last option specified controls
behavior when the source is a symbolic link, defaulting to -P.

  none, off       never make backups (even if --backup is given)
  numbered, t     make numbered backups
  existing, nil   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  simple, never   always make simple backups

Report ln bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ln invocation'

 

ls

Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
  -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
      --author               with -l, print the author of each file
  -b, --escape               print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
      --block-size=SIZE      use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below
  -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
  -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                               modification of file status information)
                               with -l: show ctime and sort by name
                               otherwise: sort by ctime
  -C                         list entries by columns
      --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always'
                               or can be `never' or `auto'.  More info below
  -d, --directory            list directory entries instead of contents,
                               and do not dereference symbolic links
  -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
  -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
  -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
      --file-type            likewise, except do not append `*'
      --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                               single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
      --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
  -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
      --group-directories-first
                             group directories before files.
                               augment with a --sort option, but any
                               use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
  -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
  -h, --human-readable       with -l, print sizes in human readable format
                               (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
      --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
  -H, --dereference-command-line
                             follow symbolic links listed on the command line
      --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
                             follow each command line symbolic link
                             that points to a directory
      --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                               (overridden by -a or -A)
      --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                               none (default), slash (-p),
                               file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
  -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
  -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
  -k                         like --block-size=1K
  -l                         use a long listing format
  -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                               link, show information for the file the link
                               references rather than for the link itself
  -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
  -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
  -N, --literal              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
                               characters specially)
  -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
  -p, --indicator-style=slash
                             append / indicator to directories
  -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of non graphic characters
      --show-control-chars   show non graphic characters as-is (default
                             unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
  -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
      --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                               literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
  -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
  -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
  -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
  -S                         sort by file size
      --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none -U,
                             extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v
      --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification
                             time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c,
                             or status -c; use specified time as sort key
                             if --sort=time
      --time-style=STYLE     with -l, show times using style STYLE:
                             full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.
                             FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
                             FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to
                             non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
                             if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE
                             takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
  -t                         sort by modification time
  -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
  -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time
                               with -l: show access time and sort by name
                               otherwise: sort by access time
  -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
  -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
  -w, --width=COLS           assume screen width instead of current value
  -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
  -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
  -1                         list one file per line

SELinux options:

  --lcontext                 Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines
                             will probably be too wide for most displays.
  -Z, --context              Display security context so it fits on most
                             displays.  Displays only mode, user, group,
                             security context and file name.
  --scontext                 Display only security context and file name.
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
 0  if OK,
 1  if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
 2  if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ls invocation'

 

lsblk

Usage:
 lsblk [options] [ ...]

Options:
 -a, --all            print all devices
 -b, --bytes          print SIZE in bytes rather than in human readable format
 -d, --nodeps         don't print slaves or holders
 -D, --discard        print discard capabilities
 -e, --exclude  exclude devices by major number (default: RAM disks)
 -I, --include  show only devices with specified major numbers
 -f, --fs             output info about filesystems
 -h, --help           usage information (this)
 -i, --ascii          use ascii characters only
 -m, --perms          output info about permissions
 -l, --list           use list format ouput
 -n, --noheadings     don't print headings
 -o, --output   output columns
 -P, --pairs          use key="value" output format
 -r, --raw            use raw output format
 -s, --inverse        inverse dependencies
 -t, --topology       output info about topology
 -V, --version        output version information and exit

Available columns (for --output):
        NAME  device name
       KNAME  internal kernel device name
     MAJ:MIN  major:minor device number
      FSTYPE  filesystem type
  MOUNTPOINT  where the device is mounted
       LABEL  filesystem LABEL
        UUID  filesystem UUID
          RA  read-ahead of the device
          RO  read-only device
          RM  removable device
       MODEL  device identifier
        SIZE  size of the device
       STATE  state of the device
       OWNER  user name
       GROUP  group name
        MODE  device node permissions
   ALIGNMENT  alignment offset
      MIN-IO  minimum I/O size
      OPT-IO  optimal I/O size
     PHY-SEC  physical sector size
     LOG-SEC  logical sector size
        ROTA  rotational device
       SCHED  I/O scheduler name
     RQ-SIZE  request queue size
        TYPE  device type
    DISC-ALN  discard alignment offset
   DISC-GRAN  discard granularity
    DISC-MAX  discard max bytes
   DISC-ZERO  discard zeroes data

For more details see lsblk(8).

 

mkdir

Usage: mkdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...
Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -m, --mode=MODE   set file mode (as in chmod), not a=rwx - umask
  -p, --parents     no error if existing, make parent directories as needed
  -v, --verbose     print a message for each created directory
  -Z, --context=CTX  set the SELinux security context of each created
                      directory to CTX
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report mkdir bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'mkdir invocation'

 

mknod

Usage: mknod [OPTION]... NAME TYPE [MAJOR MINOR]
Create the special file NAME of the given TYPE.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -m, --mode=MODE    set file permission bits to MODE, not a=rw - umask
  -Z, --context=CTX  set the SELinux security context of NAME to CTX
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Both MAJOR and MINOR must be specified when TYPE is b, c, or u, and they
must be omitted when TYPE is p.  If MAJOR or MINOR begins with 0x or 0X,
it is interpreted as hexadecimal; otherwise, if it begins with 0, as octal;
otherwise, as decimal.  TYPE may be:

  b      create a block (buffered) special file
  c, u   create a character (unbuffered) special file
  p      create a FIFO

NOTE: your shell may have its own version of mknod, which usually supersedes
the version described here.  Please refer to your shell's documentation
for details about the options it supports.

Report mknod bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'mknod invocation'

 

mktemp

Usage: mktemp [OPTION]... [TEMPLATE]
Create a temporary file or directory, safely, and print its name.
TEMPLATE must contain at least 3 consecutive `X's in last component.
If TEMPLATE is not specified, use tmp.XXXXXXXXXX, and --tmpdir is implied.

  -d, --directory     create a directory, not a file
  -u, --dry-run       do not create anything; merely print a name (unsafe)
  -q, --quiet         suppress diagnostics about file/dir-creation failure
      --suffix=SUFF   append SUFF to TEMPLATE.  SUFF must not contain slash.
                        This option is implied if TEMPLATE does not end in X.
      --tmpdir[=DIR]  interpret TEMPLATE relative to DIR.  If DIR is not
                        specified, use $TMPDIR if set, else /tmp.  With
                        this option, TEMPLATE must not be an absolute name.
                        Unlike with -t, TEMPLATE may contain slashes, but
                        mktemp creates only the final component.

  -p DIR              use DIR as a prefix; implies -t [deprecated]
  -t                  interpret TEMPLATE as a single file name component,
                        relative to a directory: $TMPDIR, if set; else the
                        directory specified via -p; else /tmp [deprecated]

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report mktemp bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'mktemp invocation'

 

mount

Usage: mount -V                 : print version
       mount -h                 : print this help
       mount                    : list mounted filesystems
       mount -l                 : idem, including volume labels
So far the informational part. Next the mounting.
The command is `mount [-t fstype] something somewhere'.
Details found in /etc/fstab may be omitted.
       mount -a [-t|-O] ...     : mount all stuff from /etc/fstab
       mount device             : mount device at the known place
       mount directory          : mount known device here
       mount -t type dev dir    : ordinary mount command
Note that one does not really mount a device, one mounts
a filesystem (of the given type) found on the device.
One can also mount an already visible directory tree elsewhere:
       mount --bind olddir newdir
or move a subtree:
       mount --move olddir newdir
One can change the type of mount containing the directory dir:
       mount --make-shared dir
       mount --make-slave dir
       mount --make-private dir
       mount --make-unbindable dir
One can change the type of all the mounts in a mount subtree
containing the directory dir:
       mount --make-rshared dir
       mount --make-rslave dir
       mount --make-rprivate dir
       mount --make-runbindable dir
A device can be given by name, say /dev/hda1 or /dev/cdrom,
or by label, using  -L label  or by uuid, using  -U uuid .
Other options: [-nfFrsvw] [-o options] [-p passwdfd].
For many more details, say  man 8 mount .

 

 

mv

Usage: mv [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
  or:  mv [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY
  or:  mv [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...
Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
      --backup[=CONTROL]       make a backup of each existing destination file
  -b                           like --backup but does not accept an argument
  -f, --force                  do not prompt before overwriting
  -i, --interactive            prompt before overwrite
  -n, --no-clobber             do not overwrite an existing file
If you specify more than one of -i, -f, -n, only the final one takes effect.
      --strip-trailing-slashes  remove any trailing slashes from each SOURCE
                                 argument
  -S, --suffix=SUFFIX          override the usual backup suffix
  -t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY  move all SOURCE arguments into DIRECTORY
  -T, --no-target-directory    treat DEST as a normal file
  -u, --update                 move only when the SOURCE file is newer
                                 than the destination file or when the
                                 destination file is missing
  -v, --verbose                explain what is being done
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through
the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.  Here are the values:

  none, off       never make backups (even if --backup is given)
  numbered, t     make numbered backups
  existing, nil   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  simple, never   always make simple backups

Report mv bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'mv invocation'

 

nano

Usage: nano [OPTIONS] [[+LINE,COLUMN] FILE]...

Option		GNU long option		Meaning
 -h, -?		--help			Show this message
 +LINE,COLUMN				Start at line LINE, column COLUMN
 -A		--smarthome		Enable smart home key
 -B		--backup		Save backups of existing files
 -C

–backupdir=Directory for saving unique backup files -D –boldtext Use bold instead of reverse video text -E –tabstospaces Convert typed tabs to spaces -F –multibuffer Enable multiple file buffers -H –historylog Log & read search/replace string history -I –ignorercfiles Don’t look at nanorc files -K –rebindkeypad Fix numeric keypad key confusion problem -L –nonewlines Don’t add newlines to the ends of files -N –noconvert Don’t convert files from DOS/Mac format -O –morespace Use one more line for editing -Q –quotestr= Quoting string -R –restricted Restricted mode -S –smooth Smooth scrolling -T < #cols> –tabsize=< #cols> Set width of a tab to #cols columns -U –quickblank Do quick statusbar blanking -V –version Print version information and exit -W –wordbounds Detect word boundaries more accurately -Y –syntax= Syntax definition to use for coloring -c –const Constantly show cursor position -d –rebinddelete Fix Backspace/Delete confusion problem -i –autoindent Automatically indent new lines -k –cut Cut from cursor to end of line -l –nofollow Don’t follow symbolic links, overwrite -m –mouse Enable the use of the mouse -o–operatingdir=Set operating directory -p –preserve Preserve XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S) keys -r < #cols> –fill=< #cols> Set wrapping point at column #cols -s –speller= Enable alternate speller -t –tempfile Auto save on exit, don’t prompt -v –view View mode (read-only) -w –nowrap Don’t wrap long lines -x –nohelp Don’t show the two help lines -z –suspend Enable suspension -a, -b, -e, -f, -g, -j (ignored, for Pico compatibility) 

 

nice

Usage: nice [OPTION] [COMMAND [ARG]...]
Run COMMAND with an adjusted niceness, which affects process scheduling.
With no COMMAND, print the current niceness.  Nicenesses range from
-20 (most favorable scheduling) to 19 (least favorable).

  -n, --adjustment=N   add integer N to the niceness (default 10)
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

NOTE: your shell may have its own version of nice, which usually supersedes
the version described here.  Please refer to your shell's documentation
for details about the options it supports.

Report nice bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'nice invocation'

 

secaudit

secaudit 1.4.2 : NTFS security data auditing

 

plymouth

Boot splash control client
USAGE: plymouth [OPTION...] [COMMAND [OPTION...]...]

Options:
  --help                         This help message
  --debug                        Enable verbose debug logging
  --get-splash-plugin-path       Get directory where splash plugins are installed
  --newroot=             Tell boot daemon that new root filesystem is mounted
  --quit                         Tell boot daemon to quit
  --ping                         Check of boot daemon is running
  --has-active-vt                Check if boot daemon has an active vt
  --sysinit                      Tell boot daemon root filesystem is mounted read-write
  --show-splash                  Show splash screen
  --hide-splash                  Hide splash screen
  --ask-for-password             Ask user for password
  --ignore-keystroke=    Remove sensitivity to a keystroke
  --update=              Tell boot daemon an update about boot progress
  --details                      Tell boot daemon there were errors during boot
  --wait                         Wait for boot daemon to quit

Available commands:
  update             Tell daemon about boot status changes
  update-root-fs     Tell daemon about root filesystem changes
  show-splash        Tell daemon to show splash screen
  hide-splash        Tell daemon to hide splash screen
  ask-for-password   Ask user for password
  ask-question       Ask user a question
  message            Display a message
  watch-keystroke    Become sensitive to a keystroke
  pause-progress     Pause boot progress bar
  unpause-progress   Unpause boot progress bar
  report-error       Tell boot daemon there were errors during boot
  deactivate         Tell boot daemon to deactivate
  reactivate         Tell boot daemon to reactivate
  quit               Tell boot daemon to quit

Options for update command:
  --status=    Tell daemon the current boot status

Options for update-root-fs command:
  --new-root-dir=    Root filesystem is about to change
  --read-write               Root filesystem is no longer read-only

Options for ask-for-password command:
  --command=             Command to send password to via standard input
  --prompt=              Message to display when asking for password
  --number-of-tries=    Number of times to ask before giving up (requires --command)
  --dont-pause-progress          Don't pause boot progress bar while asking

Options for ask-question command:
  --command=       Command to send the answer to via standard input
  --prompt=        Message to display when asking the question
  --dont-pause-progress    Don't pause boot progress bar while asking

Options for message command:
  --text=    The message text

Options for watch-keystroke command:
  --command=    Command to send keystroke to via standard input
  --keys=       Keys to become sensitive to

Options for quit command:
  --retain-splash    Don't explicitly hide boot splash on exit

********* simple selection ********* ********* selection by list *********
-A all processes -C by command name
-N negate selection -G by real group ID (supports names)
-a all w/ tty except session leaders -U by real user ID (supports names)
-d all except session leaders -g by session OR by effective group name
-e all processes -p by process ID
T all processes on this terminal -s processes in the sessions given
a all w/ tty, including other users -t by tty
g OBSOLETE — DO NOT USE -u by effective user ID (supports names)
r only running processes U processes for specified users
x processes w/o controlling ttys t by tty
*********** output format ********** *********** long options ***********
-o,o user-defined -f full –Group –User –pid –cols –ppid
-j,j job control s signal –group –user –sid –rows –info
-O,O preloaded -o v virtual memory –cumulative –format –deselect
-l,l long u user-oriented –sort –tty –forest –version
-F extra full X registers –heading –no-heading –context
********* misc options *********
-V,V show version L list format codes f ASCII art forest
-m,m,-L,-T,H threads S children in sum -y change -l format
-M,Z security data c true command name -c scheduling class
-w,w wide output n numeric WCHAN,UID -H process hierarchy

 

readlink

Usage: readlink [OPTION]... FILE
Print value of a symbolic link or canonical file name

  -f, --canonicalize            canonicalize by following every symlink in
                                every component of the given name recursively;
                                all but the last component must exist
  -e, --canonicalize-existing   canonicalize by following every symlink in
                                every component of the given name recursively,
                                all components must exist
  -m, --canonicalize-missing    canonicalize by following every symlink in
                                every component of the given name recursively,
                                without requirements on components existence
  -n, --no-newline              do not output the trailing newline
  -q, --quiet,
  -s, --silent                  suppress most error messages
  -v, --verbose                 report error messages
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report readlink bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'readlink invocation'

 

red

GNU Ed - The GNU line editor.

Usage: red [options] [file]
Options:
  -h, --help                 display this help and exit
  -V, --version              output version information and exit
  -G, --traditional          run in compatibility mode
  -l, --loose-exit-status    exit with 0 status even if a command fails
  -p, --prompt=STRING        use STRING as an interactive prompt
  -s, --quiet, --silent      suppress diagnostics
  -v, --verbose              be verbose
Start edit by reading in `file' if given. Read output of shell command
if `file' begins with a `!'.

Report bugs to .
Ed home page: http://www.gnu.org/software/ed/ed.html

 

rm

Usage: rm [OPTION]... FILE...
Remove (unlink) the FILE(s).

  -f, --force           ignore nonexistent files, never prompt
  -i                    prompt before every removal
  -I                    prompt once before removing more than three files, or
                          when removing recursively.  Less intrusive than -i,
                          while still giving protection against most mistakes
      --interactive[=WHEN]  prompt according to WHEN: never, once (-I), or
                          always (-i).  Without WHEN, prompt always
      --one-file-system  when removing a hierarchy recursively, skip any
                          directory that is on a file system different from
                          that of the corresponding command line argument
      --no-preserve-root  do not treat `/' specially
      --preserve-root   do not remove `/' (default)
  -r, -R, --recursive   remove directories and their contents recursively
  -v, --verbose         explain what is being done
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

By default, rm does not remove directories.  Use the --recursive (-r or -R)
option to remove each listed directory, too, along with all of its contents.

To remove a file whose name starts with a `-', for example `-foo',
use one of these commands:
  rm -- -foo

  rm ./-foo

Note that if you use rm to remove a file, it is usually possible to recover
the contents of that file.  If you want more assurance that the contents are
truly unrecoverable, consider using shred.

Report rm bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'rm invocation'

 

mkdir

Usage: rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...
Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty.

      --ignore-fail-on-non-empty
                  ignore each failure that is solely because a directory
                    is non-empty
  -p, --parents   remove DIRECTORY and its ancestors; e.g., `rmdir -p a/b/c' is
                    similar to `rmdir a/b/c a/b a'
  -v, --verbose   output a diagnostic for every directory processed
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report rmdir bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'rmdir invocation'

 

nano

Usage: nano [OPTIONS] [[+LINE,COLUMN] FILE]...

Option		GNU long option		Meaning
 -h, -?		--help			Show this message
 +LINE,COLUMN				Start at line LINE, column COLUMN
 -A		--smarthome		Enable smart home key
 -B		--backup		Save backups of existing files
 -C

–backupdir=Directory for saving unique backup files -D –boldtext Use bold instead of reverse video text -E –tabstospaces Convert typed tabs to spaces -F –multibuffer Enable multiple file buffers -H –historylog Log & read search/replace string history -I –ignorercfiles Don’t look at nanorc files -K –rebindkeypad Fix numeric keypad key confusion problem -L –nonewlines Don’t add newlines to the ends of files -N –noconvert Don’t convert files from DOS/Mac format -O –morespace Use one more line for editing -Q –quotestr= Quoting string -R –restricted Restricted mode -S –smooth Smooth scrolling -T < #cols> –tabsize=< #cols> Set width of a tab to #cols columns -U –quickblank Do quick statusbar blanking -V –version Print version information and exit -W –wordbounds Detect word boundaries more accurately -Y –syntax= Syntax definition to use for coloring -c –const Constantly show cursor position -d –rebinddelete Fix Backspace/Delete confusion problem -i –autoindent Automatically indent new lines -k –cut Cut from cursor to end of line -l –nofollow Don’t follow symbolic links, overwrite -m –mouse Enable the use of the mouse -o–operatingdir=Set operating directory -p –preserve Preserve XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S) keys -r < #cols> –fill=< #cols> Set wrapping point at column #cols -s –speller= Enable alternate speller -t –tempfile Auto save on exit, don’t prompt -v –view View mode (read-only) -w –nowrap Don’t wrap long lines -x –nohelp Don’t show the two help lines -z –suspend Enable suspension -a, -b, -e, -f, -g, -j (ignored, for Pico compatibility) 

Usage: rpm [OPTION…]
–quiet

Query/Verify package selection options:
-a, –all query/verify all packages
-f, –file query/verify package(s) owning file
-g, –group query/verify package(s) in group
-p, –package query/verify a package file
-W, –ftswalk query/verify package(s) from TOP file tree
walk
–pkgid query/verify package(s) with package
identifier
–hdrid query/verify package(s) with header
identifier
–fileid query/verify package(s) with file identifier
–specfile query a spec file
–triggeredby query the package(s) triggered by the
package
–whatrequires query/verify the package(s) which require a
dependency
–whatprovides query/verify the package(s) which provide a
dependency
–nomanifest do not process non-package files as
manifests

Query options (with -q or –query):
-c, –configfiles list all configuration files
-d, –docfiles list all documentation files
–dump dump basic file information
-l, –list list files in package
–queryformat=QUERYFORMAT use the following query format
-s, –state display the states of the listed files

Verify options (with -V or –verify):
–nofiledigest don’t verify digest of files
–nomd5 don’t verify digest of files
–nofiles don’t verify files in package
–nodeps don’t verify package dependencies
–noscript don’t execute verify script(s)

File tree walk options (with –ftswalk):
–comfollow follow command line symlinks
–logical logical walk
–nochdir don’t change directories
–nostat don’t get stat info
–physical physical walk
–seedot return dot and dot-dot
–xdev don’t cross devices
–whiteout return whiteout information

Signature options:
–addsign sign package(s) (identical to –resign)
-K, –checksig verify package signature(s)
–delsign delete package signatures
–import import an armored public key
–resign sign package(s) (identical to –addsign)
–nodigest don’t verify package digest(s)
–nosignature don’t verify package signature(s)

Database options:
–initdb initialize database
–rebuilddb rebuild database inverted lists from
installed package headers

Install/Upgrade/Erase options:
–aid add suggested packages to transaction
–allfiles install all files, even configurations
which might otherwise be skipped
–allmatches remove all packages which match
(normally an error is generated if specified multiple packages)
–badreloc relocate files in non-relocatable package
-e, –erase=+ erase (uninstall) package
–excludedocs do not install documentation
–excludepath= skip files with leading component
–fileconflicts detect file conflicts between packages
–force short hand for –replacepkgs –replacefiles
-F, –freshen=+ upgrade package(s) if already installed
-h, –hash print hash marks as package installs (good
with -v)
–ignorearch don’t verify package architecture
–ignoreos don’t verify package operating system
–ignoresize don’t check disk space before installing
-i, –install install package(s)
–justdb update the database, but do not modify the
filesystem
–nodeps do not verify package dependencies
–nofiledigest don’t verify digest of files
–nomd5 don’t verify digest of files (obsolete)
–nocontexts don’t install file security contexts
–noorder do not reorder package installation to
satisfy dependencies
–nosuggest do not suggest missing dependency
resolution(s)
–noscripts do not execute package scriptlet(s)
–notriggers do not execute any scriptlet(s) triggered
by this package
–oldpackage upgrade to an old version of the package
(–force on upgrades does this
automatically)
–percent print percentages as package installs
–prefix=

relocate the package to, if relocatable –relocate== relocate files from path to –replacefiles ignore file conflicts between packages –replacepkgs reinstall if the package is already present –test don’t install, but tell if it would work or not -U, –upgrade=+ upgrade package(s) Common options for all rpm modes and executables: -D, –define=’MACRO EXPR’ define MACRO with value EXPR -E, –eval=’EXPR’ print macro expansion of EXPR –macros= read instead of default file(s) –nodigest don’t verify package digest(s) –nosignature don’t verify package signature(s) –rcfile= read instead of default file(s) -r, –root=ROOT use ROOT as top level directory (default: “/”) –querytags display known query tags –showrc display final rpmrc and macro configuration –quiet provide less detailed output -v, –verbose provide more detailed output –version print the version of rpm being used Options implemented via popt alias/exec: –scripts list install/erase scriptlets from package(s) –setperms set permissions of files in a package –setugids set user/group ownership of files in a package –conflicts list capabilities this package conflicts with –obsoletes list other packages removed by installing this package –provides list capabilities that this package provides –requires list capabilities required by package(s) –info list descriptive information from package(s) –changelog list change logs for this package –xml list metadata in xml –triggers list trigger scriptlets from package(s) –last list package(s) by install time, most recent first –dupes list duplicated packages –filesbypkg list all files from each package –fileclass list file names with classes –filecolor list file names with colors –fscontext list file names with security context from file system –fileprovide list file names with provides –filerequire list file names with requires –filecaps list file names with POSIX1.e capabilities Help options: -?, –help Show this help message –usage Display brief usage message 

vim

VIM - Vi IMproved 7.2 (2008 Aug 9, compiled Apr  5 2012 10:17:55)

usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined

Arguments:
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -T 	Set terminal type to 
   -u 		Use  instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +		Start at line 
   --cmd 	Execute  before loading any vimrc file
   -c 		Execute  after loading the first file
   -S 		Source file  after loading the first file
   -s 	Read Normal mode commands from file 
   -w 	Append all typed commands to file 
   -W 	Write all typed commands to file 
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

 

VIM - Vi IMproved 7.2 (2008 Aug 9, compiled Apr  5 2012 10:17:55)

usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined

Arguments:
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -T 	Set terminal type to 
   -u 		Use  instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +		Start at line 
   --cmd 	Execute  before loading any vimrc file
   -c 		Execute  after loading the first file
   -S 		Source file  after loading the first file
   -s 	Read Normal mode commands from file 
   -w 	Append all typed commands to file 
   -W 	Write all typed commands to file 
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

 

Usage: sed [OPTION]... {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-file]...

  -n, --quiet, --silent
                 suppress automatic printing of pattern space
  -e script, --expression=script
                 add the script to the commands to be executed
  -f script-file, --file=script-file
                 add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed
  --follow-symlinks
                 follow symlinks when processing in place; hard links
                 will still be broken.
  -i[SUFFIX], --in-place[=SUFFIX]
                 edit files in place (makes backup if extension supplied).
                 The default operation mode is to break symbolic and hard links.
                 This can be changed with --follow-symlinks and --copy.
  -c, --copy
                 use copy instead of rename when shuffling files in -i mode.
                 While this will avoid breaking links (symbolic or hard), the
                 resulting editing operation is not atomic.  This is rarely
                 the desired mode; --follow-symlinks is usually enough, and
                 it is both faster and more secure.
  -l N, --line-length=N
                 specify the desired line-wrap length for the `l' command
  --posix
                 disable all GNU extensions.
  -r, --regexp-extended
                 use extended regular expressions in the script.
  -s, --separate
                 consider files as separate rather than as a single continuous
                 long stream.
  -u, --unbuffered
                 load minimal amounts of data from the input files and flush
                 the output buffers more often
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

If no -e, --expression, -f, or --file option is given, then the first
non-option argument is taken as the sed script to interpret.  All
remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are
specified, then the standard input is read.

GNU sed home page: .
General help using GNU software: .
E-mail bug reports to: .
Be sure to include the word ``sed'' somewhere in the ``Subject:'' field.

 

 

 

GNU bash, version 4.1.2(1)-release-(x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu)
Usage:	sh [GNU long option] [option] ...
	sh [GNU long option] [option] script-file ...
GNU long options:
	--debug
	--debugger
	--dump-po-strings
	--dump-strings
	--help
	--init-file
	--login
	--noediting
	--noprofile
	--norc
	--posix
	--protected
	--rcfile
	--rpm-requires
	--restricted
	--verbose
	--version
Shell options:
	-irsD or -c command or -O shopt_option		(invocation only)
	-abefhkmnptuvxBCHP or -o option
Type `sh -c "help set"' for more information about shell options.
Type `sh -c help' for more information about shell builtin commands.

 

Usage: sleep NUMBER[SUFFIX]...
  or:  sleep OPTION
Pause for NUMBER seconds.  SUFFIX may be `s' for seconds (the default),
`m' for minutes, `h' for hours or `d' for days.  Unlike most implementations
that require NUMBER be an integer, here NUMBER may be an arbitrary floating
point number.  Given two or more arguments, pause for the amount of time
specified by the sum of their values.

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report sleep bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'sleep invocation'

 

 

Usage: stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [SETTING]...
  or:  stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [-a|--all]
  or:  stty [-F DEVICE | --file=DEVICE] [-g|--save]
Print or change terminal characteristics.

  -a, --all          print all current settings in human-readable form
  -g, --save         print all current settings in a stty-readable form
  -F, --file=DEVICE  open and use the specified DEVICE instead of stdin
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Optional - before SETTING indicates negation.  An * marks non-POSIX
settings.  The underlying system defines which settings are available.

Special characters:
 * dsusp CHAR    CHAR will send a terminal stop signal once input flushed
   eof CHAR      CHAR will send an end of file (terminate the input)
   eol CHAR      CHAR will end the line
 * eol2 CHAR     alternate CHAR for ending the line
   erase CHAR    CHAR will erase the last character typed
   intr CHAR     CHAR will send an interrupt signal
   kill CHAR     CHAR will erase the current line
 * lnext CHAR    CHAR will enter the next character quoted
   quit CHAR     CHAR will send a quit signal
 * rprnt CHAR    CHAR will redraw the current line
   start CHAR    CHAR will restart the output after stopping it
   stop CHAR     CHAR will stop the output
   susp CHAR     CHAR will send a terminal stop signal
 * swtch CHAR    CHAR will switch to a different shell layer
 * werase CHAR   CHAR will erase the last word typed

Special settings:
   N             set the input and output speeds to N bauds
 * cols N        tell the kernel that the terminal has N columns
 * columns N     same as cols N
   ispeed N      set the input speed to N
 * line N        use line discipline N
   min N         with -icanon, set N characters minimum for a completed read
   ospeed N      set the output speed to N
 * rows N        tell the kernel that the terminal has N rows
 * size          print the number of rows and columns according to the kernel
   speed         print the terminal speed
   time N        with -icanon, set read timeout of N tenths of a second

Control settings:
   [-]clocal     disable modem control signals
   [-]cread      allow input to be received
 * [-]crtscts    enable RTS/CTS handshaking
 * [-]cdtrdsr    enable DTR/DSR handshaking
   csN           set character size to N bits, N in [5..8]
   [-]cstopb     use two stop bits per character (one with `-')
   [-]hup        send a hangup signal when the last process closes the tty
   [-]hupcl      same as [-]hup
   [-]parenb     generate parity bit in output and expect parity bit in input
   [-]parodd     set odd parity (even with `-')

Input settings:
   [-]brkint     breaks cause an interrupt signal
   [-]icrnl      translate carriage return to newline
   [-]ignbrk     ignore break characters
   [-]igncr      ignore carriage return
   [-]ignpar     ignore characters with parity errors
 * [-]imaxbel    beep and do not flush a full input buffer on a character
   [-]inlcr      translate newline to carriage return
   [-]inpck      enable input parity checking
   [-]istrip     clear high (8th) bit of input characters
 * [-]iutf8      assume input characters are UTF-8 encoded
 * [-]iuclc      translate uppercase characters to lowercase
 * [-]ixany      let any character restart output, not only start character
   [-]ixoff      enable sending of start/stop characters
   [-]ixon       enable XON/XOFF flow control
   [-]parmrk     mark parity errors (with a 255-0-character sequence)
   [-]tandem     same as [-]ixoff

Output settings:
 * bsN           backspace delay style, N in [0..1]
 * crN           carriage return delay style, N in [0..3]
 * ffN           form feed delay style, N in [0..1]
 * nlN           newline delay style, N in [0..1]
 * [-]ocrnl      translate carriage return to newline
 * [-]ofdel      use delete characters for fill instead of null characters
 * [-]ofill      use fill (padding) characters instead of timing for delays
 * [-]olcuc      translate lowercase characters to uppercase
 * [-]onlcr      translate newline to carriage return-newline
 * [-]onlret     newline performs a carriage return
 * [-]onocr      do not print carriage returns in the first column
   [-]opost      postprocess output
 * tabN          horizontal tab delay style, N in [0..3]
 * tabs          same as tab0
 * -tabs         same as tab3
 * vtN           vertical tab delay style, N in [0..1]

Local settings:
   [-]crterase   echo erase characters as backspace-space-backspace
 * crtkill       kill all line by obeying the echoprt and echoe settings
 * -crtkill      kill all line by obeying the echoctl and echok settings
 * [-]ctlecho    echo control characters in hat notation (`^c')
   [-]echo       echo input characters
 * [-]echoctl    same as [-]ctlecho
   [-]echoe      same as [-]crterase
   [-]echok      echo a newline after a kill character
 * [-]echoke     same as [-]crtkill
   [-]echonl     echo newline even if not echoing other characters
 * [-]echoprt    echo erased characters backward, between `' and '/'
   [-]icanon     enable erase, kill, werase, and rprnt special characters
   [-]iexten     enable non-POSIX special characters
   [-]isig       enable interrupt, quit, and suspend special characters
   [-]noflsh     disable flushing after interrupt and quit special characters
 * [-]prterase   same as [-]echoprt
 * [-]tostop     stop background jobs that try to write to the terminal
 * [-]xcase      with icanon, escape with `' for uppercase characters

Combination settings:
 * [-]LCASE      same as [-]lcase
   cbreak        same as -icanon
   -cbreak       same as icanon
   cooked        same as brkint ignpar istrip icrnl ixon opost isig
                 icanon, eof and eol characters to their default values
   -cooked       same as raw
   crt           same as echoe echoctl echoke
   dec           same as echoe echoctl echoke -ixany intr ^c erase 0177
                 kill ^u
 * [-]decctlq    same as [-]ixany
   ek            erase and kill characters to their default values
   evenp         same as parenb -parodd cs7
   -evenp        same as -parenb cs8
 * [-]lcase      same as xcase iuclc olcuc
   litout        same as -parenb -istrip -opost cs8
   -litout       same as parenb istrip opost cs7
   nl            same as -icrnl -onlcr
   -nl           same as icrnl -inlcr -igncr onlcr -ocrnl -onlret
   oddp          same as parenb parodd cs7
   -oddp         same as -parenb cs8
   [-]parity     same as [-]evenp
   pass8         same as -parenb -istrip cs8
   -pass8        same as parenb istrip cs7
   raw           same as -ignbrk -brkint -ignpar -parmrk -inpck -istrip
                 -inlcr -igncr -icrnl  -ixon  -ixoff  -iuclc  -ixany
                 -imaxbel -opost -isig -icanon -xcase min 1 time 0
   -raw          same as cooked
   sane          same as cread -ignbrk brkint -inlcr -igncr icrnl -iutf8
                 -ixoff -iuclc -ixany imaxbel opost -olcuc -ocrnl onlcr
                 -onocr -onlret -ofill -ofdel nl0 cr0 tab0 bs0 vt0 ff0
                 isig icanon iexten echo echoe echok -echonl -noflsh
                 -xcase -tostop -echoprt echoctl echoke, all special
                 characters to their default values

Handle the tty line connected to standard input.  Without arguments,
prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane.  In
settings, CHAR is taken literally, or coded as in ^c, 0x37, 0177 or
127; special values ^- or undef used to disable special characters.

Report stty bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'stty invocation'

 

Usage: su [OPTION]... [-] [USER [ARG]...]
Change the effective user id and group id to that of USER.

  -, -l, --login               make the shell a login shell, 
                               clears all envvars except for TERM,
                               initializes HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME and PATH
  -c, --command=COMMAND        pass a single COMMAND to the shell with -c
  --session-command=COMMAND    pass a single COMMAND to the shell with -c
                               and do not create a new session
  -f, --fast                   pass -f to the shell (for csh or tcsh)
  -m, --preserve-environment   do not reset HOME, SHELL, USER, LOGNAME
                               environment variables
  -p                           same as -m
  -s, --shell=SHELL            run SHELL if /etc/shells allows it
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

A mere - implies -l.   If USER not given, assume root.

Report su bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'su invocation'
Usage: sync [OPTION]
Force changed blocks to disk, update the super block.

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Report sync bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'sync invocation'

 

Usage: tar [OPTION...] [FILE]...
GNU `tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can
restore individual files from the archive.

Examples:
  tar -cf archive.tar foo bar  # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.
  tar -tvf archive.tar         # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.
  tar -xf archive.tar          # Extract all files from archive.tar.

 Main operation mode:

  -A, --catenate, --concatenate   append tar files to an archive
  -c, --create               create a new archive
  -d, --diff, --compare      find differences between archive and file system
      --delete               delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
  -r, --append               append files to the end of an archive
  -t, --list                 list the contents of an archive
      --test-label           test the archive volume label and exit
  -u, --update               only append files newer than copy in archive
  -x, --extract, --get       extract files from an archive

 Operation modifiers:

      --check-device         check device numbers when creating incremental
                             archives (default)
  -g, --listed-incremental=FILE   handle new GNU-format incremental backup
  -G, --incremental          handle old GNU-format incremental backup
      --ignore-failed-read   do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
      --level=NUMBER         dump level for created listed-incremental archive
  -n, --seek                 archive is seekable
      --no-check-device      do not check device numbers when creating
                             incremental archives
      --no-seek              archive is not seekable
      --occurrence[=NUMBER]  process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file
                             in the archive; this option is valid only in
                             conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete,
                             --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of
                             files is given either on the command line or via
                             the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1
      --sparse-version=MAJOR[.MINOR]
                             set version of the sparse format to use (implies
                             --sparse)
  -S, --sparse               handle sparse files efficiently

 Overwrite control:

  -k, --keep-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             treat them as errors
      --keep-newer-files     don't replace existing files that are newer than
                             their archive copies
      --no-overwrite-dir     preserve metadata of existing directories
      --overwrite            overwrite existing files when extracting
      --overwrite-dir        overwrite metadata of existing directories when
                             extracting (default)
      --recursive-unlink     empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
      --remove-files         remove files after adding them to the archive
      --skip-old-files       don't replace existing files when extracting,
                             silently skip over them
  -U, --unlink-first         remove each file prior to extracting over it
  -W, --verify               attempt to verify the archive after writing it

 Select output stream:

      --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children
      --no-ignore-command-error   treat non-zero exit codes of children as
                             error
  -O, --to-stdout            extract files to standard output
      --to-command=COMMAND   pipe extracted files to another program

 Handling of file attributes:

      --acls                 Save the ACLs to the archive
      --atime-preserve[=METHOD]   preserve access times on dumped files, either
                             by restoring the times after reading
                             (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not setting the
                             times in the first place (METHOD='system')
      --delay-directory-restore   delay setting modification times and
                             permissions of extracted directories until the end
                             of extraction
      --group=NAME           force NAME as group for added files
      --mode=CHANGES         force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
      --mtime=DATE-OR-FILE   set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
  -m, --touch                don't extract file modified time
      --no-acls              Don't extract the ACLs from the archive
      --no-delay-directory-restore
                             cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore
                             option
      --no-same-owner        extract files as yourself (default for ordinary
                             users)
      --no-same-permissions  apply the user's umask when extracting permissions
                             from the archive (default for ordinary users)
      --no-selinux           Don't extract the SELinux context from the archive

      --no-xattrs            Don't extract the user/root xattrs from the
                             archive
      --numeric-owner        always use numbers for user/group names
      --owner=NAME           force NAME as owner for added files
  -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
                             extract information about file permissions
                             (default for superuser)
      --preserve             same as both -p and -s
      --same-owner           try extracting files with the same ownership as
                             exists in the archive (default for superuser)
  -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
                             sort names to extract to match archive
      --selinux              Save the SELinux context to the archive
      --xattrs               Save the user/root xattrs to the archive

 Device selection and switching:

  -f, --file=ARCHIVE         use archive file or device ARCHIVE
      --force-local          archive file is local even if it has a colon
  -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
                             run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
  -L, --tape-length=NUMBER   change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
  -M, --multi-volume         create/list/extract multi-volume archive
      --rmt-command=COMMAND  use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
      --rsh-command=COMMAND  use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      --volno-file=FILE      use/update the volume number in FILE

 Device blocking:

  -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS   BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
  -B, --read-full-records    reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
  -i, --ignore-zeros         ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)
      --record-size=NUMBER   NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

 Archive format selection:

  -H, --format=FORMAT        create archive of the given format

 FORMAT is one of the following:

    gnu                      GNU tar 1.13.x format
    oldgnu                   GNU format as per tar < = 1.12
    pax                      POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
    posix                    same as pax
    ustar                    POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
    v7                       old V7 tar format

      --old-archive, --portability
                             same as --format=v7
      --pax-option=keyword[[:]=value][,keyword[[:]=value]]...
                             control pax keywords
      --posix                same as --format=posix
  -V, --label=TEXT           create archive with volume name TEXT; at
                             list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern
                             for volume name

 Compression options:

  -a, --auto-compress        use archive suffix to determine the compression
                             program
  -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
                             filter through PROG (must accept -d)
  -j, --bzip2                filter the archive through bzip2
  -J, --xz                   filter the archive through xz
      --lzip                 filter the archive through lzip
      --lzma                 filter the archive through lzma
      --lzop
      --no-auto-compress     do not use archive suffix to determine the
                             compression program
  -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip   filter the archive through gzip
  -Z, --compress, --uncompress   filter the archive through compress

 Local file selection:

      --add-file=FILE        add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name
                             starts with a dash)
      --backup[=CONTROL]     backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
  -C, --directory=DIR        change to directory DIR
      --exclude=PATTERN      exclude files, given as a PATTERN
      --exclude-backups      exclude backup and lock files
      --exclude-caches       exclude contents of directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG, except for the tag file itself
      --exclude-caches-all   exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing
                             CACHEDIR.TAG
      --exclude-tag=FILE     exclude contents of directories containing FILE,
                             except for FILE itself
      --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE
      --exclude-tag-under=FILE   exclude everything under directories
                             containing FILE
      --exclude-vcs          exclude version control system directories
  -h, --dereference          follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they
                             point to
      --hard-dereference     follow hard links; archive and dump the files they
                             refer to
  -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
                             begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive
      --newer-mtime=DATE     compare date and time when data changed only
      --no-null              disable the effect of the previous --null option
      --no-recursion         avoid descending automatically in directories
      --no-unquote           do not unquote filenames read with -T
      --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C
  -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
                             only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
      --one-file-system      stay in local file system when creating archive
  -P, --absolute-names       don't strip leading `/'s from file names
      --recursion            recurse into directories (default)
      --suffix=STRING        backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~'
                             unless overridden by environment variable
                             SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)
  -T, --files-from=FILE      get names to extract or create from FILE
      --unquote              unquote filenames read with -T (default)
  -X, --exclude-from=FILE    exclude patterns listed in FILE

 File name transformations:

      --strip-components=NUMBER   strip NUMBER leading components from file
                             names on extraction
      --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
                             use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file
                             names

 File name matching options (affect both exclude and include patterns):

      --anchored             patterns match file name start
      --ignore-case          ignore case
      --no-anchored          patterns match after any `/' (default for
                             exclusion)
      --no-ignore-case       case sensitive matching (default)
      --no-wildcards         verbatim string matching
      --no-wildcards-match-slash   wildcards do not match `/'
      --wildcards            use wildcards (default)
      --wildcards-match-slash   wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

 Informative output:

      --checkpoint[=NUMBER]  display progress messages every NUMBERth record
                             (default 10)
      --checkpoint-action=ACTION   execute ACTION on each checkpoint
      --index-file=FILE      send verbose output to FILE
  -l, --check-links          print a message if not all links are dumped
      --no-quote-chars=STRING   disable quoting for characters from STRING
      --quote-chars=STRING   additionally quote characters from STRING
      --quoting-style=STYLE  set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE
                             values
  -R, --block-number         show block number within archive with each
                             message
      --show-defaults        show tar defaults
      --show-omitted-dirs    when listing or extracting, list each directory
                             that does not match search criteria
      --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
                             show file or archive names after transformation
      --totals[=SIGNAL]      print total bytes after processing the archive;
                             with an argument - print total bytes when this
                             SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed signals are: SIGHUP,
                             SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the names
                             without SIG prefix are also accepted
      --utc                  print file modification dates in UTC
  -v, --verbose              verbosely list files processed
      --warning=KEYWORD      warning control
  -w, --interactive, --confirmation
                             ask for confirmation for every action

 Compatibility options:

  -o                         when creating, same as --old-archive; when
                             extracting, same as --no-same-owner

 Other options:

  -?, --help                 give this help list
      --restrict             disable use of some potentially harmful options
      --usage                give a short usage message
      --version              print program version

Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or optional
for any corresponding short options.

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.
The version control may be set with --backup or VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

  none, off       never make backups
  t, numbered     make numbered backups
  nil, existing   numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
  never, simple   always make simple backups

Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:

  literal
  shell
  shell-always
  c
  c-maybe
  escape
  locale
  clocale

*This* tar defaults to:
--format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape --rmt-command=/sbin/rmt
--rsh-command=/usr/bin/rsh

Report bugs to <bug-tar@gnu.org>.

 

 

Usage: touch [OPTION]... FILE...
Update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time.

A FILE argument that does not exist is created empty, unless -c or -h
is supplied.

A FILE argument string of - is handled specially and causes touch to
change the times of the file associated with standard output.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a                     change only the access time
  -c, --no-create        do not create any files
  -d, --date=STRING      parse STRING and use it instead of current time
  -f                     (ignored)
  -h, --no-dereference   affect each symbolic link instead of any referenced
                         file (useful only on systems that can change the
                         timestamps of a symlink)
  -m                     change only the modification time
  -r, --reference=FILE   use this file's times instead of current time
  -t STAMP               use [[CC]YY]MMDDhhmm[.ss] instead of current time
  --time=WORD            change the specified time:
                           WORD is access, atime, or use: equivalent to -a
                           WORD is modify or mtime: equivalent to -m
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Note that the -d and -t options accept different time-date formats.

Report touch bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'touch invocation'

 

 

 

 

 

Usage: umount -h | -V
       umount -a [-d] [-f] [-r] [-n] [-v] [-t vfstypes] [-O opts]
       umount [-d] [-f] [-r] [-n] [-v] special | node...

 

 

 

unicode_stop skipped on /dev/pts/1

 

 

 

 

VIM - Vi IMproved 7.2 (2008 Aug 9, compiled Apr  5 2012 10:17:55)

usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined

Arguments:
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -T 	Set terminal type to 
   -u 		Use  instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +		Start at line 
   --cmd 	Execute  before loading any vimrc file
   -c 		Execute  after loading the first file
   -S 		Source file  after loading the first file
   -s 	Read Normal mode commands from file 
   -w 	Append all typed commands to file 
   -W 	Write all typed commands to file 
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

 

 

Usage: gzip [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Compress or uncompress FILEs (by default, compress FILES in-place).

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

  -c, --stdout      write on standard output, keep original files unchanged
  -d, --decompress  decompress
  -f, --force       force overwrite of output file and compress links
  -h, --help        give this help
  -l, --list        list compressed file contents
  -L, --license     display software license
  -n, --no-name     do not save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -N, --name        save or restore the original name and time stamp
  -q, --quiet       suppress all warnings
  -r, --recursive   operate recursively on directories
  -S, --suffix=SUF  use suffix SUF on compressed files
  -t, --test        test compressed file integrity
  -v, --verbose     verbose mode
  -V, --version     display version number
  -1, --fast        compress faster
  -9, --best        compress better
    --rsyncable   Make rsync-friendly archive

With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

Report bugs to .
VIM - Vi IMproved 7.2 (2008 Aug 9, compiled Apr  5 2012 10:17:55)

usage: vim [arguments] [file ..]       edit specified file(s)
   or: vim [arguments] -               read text from stdin
   or: vim [arguments] -t tag          edit file where tag is defined

Arguments:
   --			Only file names after this
   -v			Vi mode (like "vi")
   -e			Ex mode (like "ex")
   -s			Silent (batch) mode (only for "ex")
   -y			Easy mode (like "evim", modeless)
   -R			Readonly mode (like "view")
   -Z			Restricted mode (like "rvim")
   -m			Modifications (writing files) not allowed
   -M			Modifications in text not allowed
   -b			Binary mode
   -C			Compatible with Vi: 'compatible'
   -N			Not fully Vi compatible: 'nocompatible'
   -V[N][fname]		Be verbose [level N] [log messages to fname]
   -n			No swap file, use memory only
   -r			List swap files and exit
   -r (with file name)	Recover crashed session
   -L			Same as -r
   -T 	Set terminal type to 
   -u 		Use  instead of any .vimrc
   --noplugin		Don't load plugin scripts
   -p[N]		Open N tab pages (default: one for each file)
   -o[N]		Open N windows (default: one for each file)
   -O[N]		Like -o but split vertically
   +			Start at end of file
   +		Start at line 
   --cmd 	Execute  before loading any vimrc file
   -c 		Execute  after loading the first file
   -S 		Source file  after loading the first file
   -s 	Read Normal mode commands from file 
   -w 	Append all typed commands to file 
   -W 	Write all typed commands to file 
   -h  or  --help	Print Help (this message) and exit
   --version		Print version information and exit

 

 

Usage: awk [POSIX or GNU style options] -f progfile [--] file ...
Usage: awk [POSIX or GNU style options] [--] 'program' file ...
POSIX options:		GNU long options:
	-f progfile		--file=progfile
	-F fs			--field-separator=fs
	-v var=val		--assign=var=val
	-m[fr] val
	-O			--optimize
	-W compat		--compat
	-W copyleft		--copyleft
	-W copyright		--copyright
	-W dump-variables[=file]	--dump-variables[=file]
	-W exec=file		--exec=file
	-W gen-po		--gen-po
	-W help			--help
	-W lint[=fatal]		--lint[=fatal]
	-W lint-old		--lint-old
	-W non-decimal-data	--non-decimal-data
	-W profile[=file]	--profile[=file]
	-W posix		--posix
	-W re-interval		--re-interval
	-W source=program-text	--source=program-text
	-W traditional		--traditional
	-W usage		--usage
	-W use-lc-numeric	--use-lc-numeric
	-W version		--version

To report bugs, see node `Bugs' in `gawk.info', which is
section `Reporting Problems and Bugs' in the printed version.

gawk is a pattern scanning and processing language.
By default it reads standard input and writes standard output.

Examples:
	gawk '{ sum += $1 }; END { print sum }' file
	gawk -F: '{ print $1 }' /etc/passwd
Usage: basename NAME [SUFFIX]
  or:  basename OPTION
Print NAME with any leading directory components removed.
If specified, also remove a trailing SUFFIX.

      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

Examples:
  basename /usr/bin/sort       Output "sort".
  basename include/stdio.h .h  Output "stdio".

Report basename bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'basename invocation'

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